Europe,  Spain

One building, two faiths: the Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba

Córdoba is a city in Andalusia in southern Spain, on the banks of the Guadalquivir River. The river has its source in the Cazorla mountain range to the east and its mouth at Sanlucar de Barrameda near Cadiz and the valley it has carved through Andalusia is the most fertile part of southern Spain. The Guadalquivir is the same river upon which Seville is built and it has played a significant part in the history of both cities. In Roman times, it was navigable all the way from the Atlantic Ocean to Córdoba, giving the city great strategic importance and helping to make it the largest city in all of Roman Spain. Olive oil, wheat and wine were shipped from here back to Ancient Rome. Later, during the Islamic period it was the capital of the Moorish kingdom of El-Andalus and was famous for its coexistence of Muslims, Jews and Christians. Today, the city’s most famous landmark is the huge Mosque-Cathedral.

Córdoba Mosque-Church mesmerising arches
The simple and beautiful two-tone double arches of the Muslim prayer hall

The Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba

Seeing and experiencing the enormous Mosque-Cathedral in Córdoba was another ‘wow’ moment for us all. As we entered its dimly lit interior and our eyes fell upon the myriad of red and white arches, stone pillars and hanging lanterns, we were all transfixed. And it is not just that this place is beautiful to look at, it also has a calm and spiritual atmosphere, bestowed on it by the simplicity and harmony of its design, and heavy with the devotion of all the people who have worshiped here over the centuries.

This is indeed an ancient place of worship: the first building on the site was actually a Christian temple, built by the Visigoths in the mid-sixth century. But then the Muslims took control of this part of Spain and in place of the Christian temple Abd al-Rahman I (786-788) built the original mosque here. For several centuries the mosque and minaret were extended and improved, until it was over four times its original size. Then in 1236 this part of Spain was reconquered by the Christians and the mosque was consecrated as a Catholic Church. The new rulers of the city so admired the beauty of the mosque that instead of demolishing it as we have seen in other locations, they looked after it and built their own cathedral in the midst of the Islamic arches and columns. The result is the extraordinary building that exists today and it is incredible to note that Holy Mass has been held here every day since 1236.

Cordoba Mosque-Cathedral exterior door
One of the exterior doors of the Mosque-Cathedral in Córdoba

What I love about the Islamic architecture we have seen so far (in the Alcazar in Seville, the Alhambra in Granada and now Córdoba) is the detailing. You look through beautiful archways with intricate plasterwork and see beyond them more archways with further patterns and interest beyond, layer after layer, making a complex and yet compatible whole.

The Muslim Prayer Hall

And it is the same in the Mosque-Church in Córdoba: the double arches with their alternating brick and stone form a simple, bold and highly individual design. Below them are over 850 pillars made of coloured granite, jasper, onyx and marble. The effect is to give the Muslim prayer hall a depth and uniformity that is quite stunning: the space seems to be magnified by its repeating geometry. As you move around the prayer hall, the perspective changes: at first the arches are offset, but move slightly to one side or the other and they create a multi-layered symmetrical scene. Slightly further still and they line up like a tunnel disappearing far into the distance. I could’ve wandered around all day admiring and photographing the different patterns and light.

Córdoba Mosque-Cathedral arches

Córdoba Mosque-Cathedral light
Light pouring through the wooden screens at the side of the Muslim prayer hall. Originally these would’ve been open to the orange tree courtyard beyond
Córdoba Mosque-Cathedral arches side chapels
In this photograph you can see the Christian side chapels that were created around the sides when the mosque was converted to a cathedral

The Mihrab

On one side of the prayer hall is the Mihrab, which is a niche in the wall that indicates the direction of Mecca and is the direction in which the congregation face to pray. The Mihrab here at the Mosque-Cathedral is particularly large and is covered with rich mosaics and ornamental decoration. Above it is an equally dazzling dome covered with gold mosaics in a pattern radiating out from its centre.

Córdoba Mosque-Cathedral Mihrab
The beautifully decorated Mihrab in the old mosque at Córdoba, together with the dazzling dome that stands above it

When it was initially converted to a Christian church, the mosque wasn’t altered much at all. The openings that led out to the orange tree patio were closed and the area around the edge was sectioned off into side chapels, but otherwise it was utilised as it was, with Christian symbols and paintings added. It was much later, in the 14th and 15th centuries, that the internal chapels (the Villaviciosa and Royal Chapels) and cathedral nave were added.

Córdoba Mosque-Church Villaviciosa Chapel
The stunning multi-lobed arches and Mujédar architecture of the Villaviciosa Chapel within the Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba

The Renaissance Cathedral

In the centre of the original mosque sits an equally magnificent Renaissance and baroque cathedral, built in the early 16th century. Standing at the point where the two meet, the difference in the architectural styles is striking. You step from the relatively low ceilinged prayer hall into a towering nave with an elaborately decorated ceiling. It is a dramatic scene: the intricately carved mahogany choir stalls and dark alterpiece contrast sharply with the pale stone of the nave, which is illuminated by skylights in the transept and central dome. The result is that the cathedral feels much lighter and loftier than the dimly lit prayer hall, but it also feels busier and less restful because there is just so much going on, all the different elements competing for attention.

Córdoba Mesquita Mosque-Church baroque interior
At the heart of the Mosque-Cathedral is this beautiful baroque nave and choir

Permission to build the nave was given by Charles V, King of Castille and Aragon. Interestingly, when he visited the finished cathedral he wasn’t happy with the result and is reported to have said, “they have taken something unique in the world and destroyed it to build something you can find in any city.” I would have to agree with him. Impressive as the cathedral part of this building is, I much preferred the harmony and tranquility of the original mosque.

Córdoba Mosque-Cathedral two faiths side by side
One building, two faiths: on the left the Catholic cathedral, on the right the Islamic mosque

The Minaret and Patio de Los Naranjos

You enter the Mosque-Cathedral through a lovely courtyard with orange trees and fountains. This is where you buy your entry tickets and where you can also buy tickets to climb up the minaret.

Córdoba Mesquita Mosque-Church minaret
You can climb up the minaret, from where you get fabulous views

Originally the mosque was open to this courtyard and it is where the Muslim congregation washed and cleansed themselves before entering the mosque to pray. Climbing the minaret/bell tower gives you an interesting view down upon the old mosque and cathedral where the contrast between the low, understated Islamic building and the lofty, grand Christian one is very apparent. The views across Córdoba itself are pretty good too and you get a real sense of history as you climb up some of the tower’s original, eroded steps.

Córdoba Mesquita Mosque-Church Orange tree courtyard
The lovely orange tree courtyard, part of the Mesquita Mosque-Church in Córdoba

La Sinagoga: Córdoba’s Medieval Synagogue

Córdoba also has another rare religious building: a medieval synagogue built in 1315.

The first Jews are thought to have arrived in southern Spain in the 6th century and during this time they suffered persecution from the Visigoths who ruled here.  Later, under early Islamic rule, there was a period of harmony in which Jews, Muslims and Christians lived side-by-side, respecting each others’ religions and holy days. At the time Spain had one of the biggest and most prosperous Jewish communities in the world. With the rise of the Almohad dynasty in the 13th century though, all this changed. The Almohad rulers were more fundamental than previous Islamic rulers and they treated both Christians and Jews harshly. Faced with the choice of death or conversion, many of them fled to the Christian north of Spain.  Many returned after the Christian reconquest in 1236, working in banking, medicine, law and commerce. They often worked as tax collectors, which started to lead to resentment amongst the rest of the population and when the Spanish Inquisition started in 1481, they were one of the main groups who were targeted.  Many Jews fled the country; many others converted but continued to practice their own faith in secret.  The Inquisition aimed to ensure that ‘converters’ were truly practicing their new faith: anyone found or suspected of continuing to worship as a Jew or Muslim was considered a heretic and put on trial.  Things got even worse in 1492 when King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella signed a decree that all Jews or Muslims must convert to Catholicism or else leave Spain.

Córdoba medieval synagogue
The tiny medieval synagogue in Córdoba with its beautiful carved plasterwork

So, this synagogue is significant because it is only one of three synagogues left in Spain from the days before the Spanish Inquisition. It was rediscovered in 1884 when part of its walls fell down, revealing the highly decorated plasterwork behind. It is quite small, consisting of an entrance patio, an inner atrium and the prayer hall, with the women’s gallery above. It is decorated with lovely mudéjar features like multi-lobed archways and all around the walls are inscriptions in Hebrew in the plasterwork. Most of these are incomplete now, but there was something quite beautiful and poignant about this tiny space, given the history of what happened to the Jews in this area.

The synagogue is at the heart of Córdoba’s medieval quarter, called La Juderia, which has lots of narrow, winding streets and picturesque flower-filled squares. Every year the city holds a contest for the most beautiful courtyard and people proudly decorate their patios with flowers and window boxes.

All in all, Córdoba was an interesting place to get to know and taught us a lot about the religious and cultural history of this area. As well as the Jewish quarter it has an impressive Roman bridge across the river, the remains of a Roman temple, medieval walls and a lively modern town.

Some of the many faces of Córdoba (clockwise from top left): the ruins of a Roman temple, narrow lanes in the Jewish quarter, the pretty Calleja de las Flores and the expansive Plaza de Corredera

I also loved all of the hidden courtyards we saw everywhere, glimpsed through an open door or gate. I shall also remember Córdoba as a really colourful city: the brightly painted buildings together with the shops and courtyards with all their beautiful flowers meant that there was colour everywhere you looked. Unfortunately for us, we were there on an unseasonably cold couple of days, otherwise I would’ve liked to linger longer in its old town or walk alongside the river and take in the views.

Córdoba colourful hidden courtyards
Colourful Córdoba with its many hidden courtyards, glimpsed through open doorways or gates and bright flowers against whitewashed walls

Instead we headed back towards Granada on a drive that took us past more rolling hills, green fields and fertile agricultural land and then past hillside after hillside of olive trees, making their distinctive patterns on the landscape. We skirted around countless villages and towns, many with ancient castles perched on hilltops like Espejo, Alcaudete and Alcalá la Real. This region really would be a fascinating area to explore further one day. But for now, we were all exhausted and ready to get ‘home’ to the caravan.

Córdoba countryside Alcaudete Alcalá la Real
Some of the stunning countryside and views on our way home. Clockwise from top left: Alcaudete, rolling green fertile land, Alcalá la Real and hillsides of olive trees

Finally, please don’t forget to leave us your feedback!  Simply fill in the form below and let us know your thoughts – have you ever been to Córdoba?  Is it somewhere you would like to visit one day?  We really would like to know what you think, so please do get in touch.


  • Roy

    Hi all looks like your having a fab time, love the blogs on your time at each stop off
    Wishing I was there too
    Have fun

  • everydayjoyfulsky

    The history and the cultural backgrounds that you get to learned and shared is simply amazing! I truly admire your dedication and efforts in all the research into each place you visit. Thank you so much for sharing!

    • Sarah

      Thank you! Do you know, I just can’t help myself – it has been such an interesting journey and I find myself constantly taken off on a tangent learning new things about the places we have visited. I LOVE it and I am glad to be able to share it with you. Xx

  • Liz Wetherby

    Wow Sarah! So much to think about. I wonder if the differences in the “sacred spaces” reflect the differences in the worship of the two faiths. What a study that would make! And then you add Judiasm. The richness of this culture is deep. This sounds like a place I would love to go and immerse myself to study the faith history. You just make it come alive to the point where my interest is intensly piqued. I loved the color and character of the courtyards and alcoves. What a beautiful area. It sounds like you could probably spend several days and still not cover all the things you wanted. Sarah, thank you – this stop was particularly meaningful.

    • Sarah

      Liz – I am sure you would love it here and, like me, you would go away having learned SO MUCH. It really is fascinating and we are so privileged to be able to be here seeing it all. And we are delighted that you are here on the journey with us. Xx